The Indian Analyst
 

South Indian Inscriptions

 

 

Contents

Index

Introduction

Contents

List of Plates

Additions and Corrections

Images

Contents

Altekar, A. S

Bhattasali, N. K

Barua, B. M And Chakravarti, Pulin Behari

Chakravarti, S. N

Chhabra, B. CH

Das Gupta

Desai, P. B

Gai, G. S

Garde, M. B

Ghoshal, R. K

Gupte, Y. R

Kedar Nath Sastri

Khare, G. H

Krishnamacharlu, C. R

Konow, Sten

Lakshminarayan Rao, N

Majumdar, R. C

Master, Alfred

Mirashi, V. V

Mirashi, V. V., And Gupte, Y. R

Narasimhaswami, H. K

Nilakanta Sastri And Venkataramayya, M

Panchamukhi, R. S

Pandeya, L. P

Raghavan, V

Ramadas, G

Sircar, Dines Chandra

Somasekhara Sarma

Subrahmanya Aiyar

Vats, Madho Sarup

Venkataramayya, M

Venkatasubba Ayyar

Vaidyanathan, K. S

Vogel, J. Ph

Index.- By M. Venkataramayya

Other South-Indian Inscriptions 

Volume 1

Volume 2

Volume 3

Vol. 4 - 8

Volume 9

Volume 10

Volume 11

Volume 12

Volume 13

Volume 14

Volume 15

Volume 16

Volume 17

Volume 18

Volume 19

Volume 20

Volume 22
Part 1

Volume 22
Part 2

Volume 23

Volume 24

Volume 26

Volume 27

Tiruvarur

Darasuram

Konerirajapuram

Tanjavur

Annual Reports 1935-1944

Annual Reports 1945- 1947

Corpus Inscriptionum Indicarum Volume 2, Part 2

Corpus Inscriptionum Indicarum Volume 7, Part 3

Kalachuri-Chedi Era Part 1

Kalachuri-Chedi Era Part 2

Epigraphica Indica

Epigraphia Indica Volume 3

Epigraphia
Indica Volume 4

Epigraphia Indica Volume 6

Epigraphia Indica Volume 7

Epigraphia Indica Volume 8

Epigraphia Indica Volume 27

Epigraphia Indica Volume 29

Epigraphia Indica Volume 30

Epigraphia Indica Volume 31

Epigraphia Indica Volume 32

Paramaras Volume 7, Part 2

Śilāhāras Volume 6, Part 2

Vākāṭakas Volume 5

Early Gupta Inscriptions

Archaeological Links

Archaeological-Survey of India

Pudukkottai

EPIGRAPHIA INDICA

SEALS OF TIRUPPUVANAM PLATES

(1 Plate)

K. V. SUBRAHMANYA AIYER, COIMBATORE

Subsequent to my editing the inscriptions on the above plates,[2] I happened to refer to the work entitled Coins of Southern India by Sir Walter Elliot, on p. 124 of which he writes “I have a drawing and a facsimile of the seal of another śāsanam, which, to the best of my recollection, was deposited with the preceding (i.e. the seal of the Tiruppūvaṇam plates of Jaṭāvarman Kulaśēkhara I) at Tiruppūvaṇam, and referred to the grant therein mentioned by the chief of Madacolam, a feudatory of Kulaśēkhara. This seal differs somewhat from the above marginal woodcut in having the tiger and the fish placed upright, opposite each other, in the middle of the field, with the bow transversely below them : round it a legend which has been read doubtfully as ‘Pāṇḍya-Narēndravarmmaṇaḥ Samastalōkāśrayaḥi.e. “the Pāṇḍya Narēndravarman, lord of the whole world”. To the above observation, I have only to say that there is nothing to doubt about the correctness of the legend on this seal. On page 123 4 of the book, the author carefully describes the seal of the Tiruppūvaṇam plates of Jaṭāvarman Kulaśēkhara and makes his own observations as regards the king, his date, etc., which we reproduce here :─

“Memorials of him (Kulaśēkhara I) have been found in the shape of copper śāsanams, the seals of which have the fish symbol in the centre, flanked by the tiger and the bow, as represented in the annexed woodcut, showing that he had assumed the paramount position of the Chōḷas or in other words, of the whole of the Drāviḍa. The copper plates to which the seals above described were attached were translated by Dr. Caldwell and purport to be issued in the “13th year, 4364th day of the lord of the earth, Śrī Kōchchaḍei Varmā, emperor of the three worlds, Śrī Kulāśēkhara Dēva,” etc. “If this is the year of the Kāliyuga, it would correspond with

[1] Dr. B. C. Sen rendered (I.H.Q., Vol. X, p. 330) mukti-bhūmi as ‘the place of salvation.’ Dr. D. C. Sircar
asked (Indian Culture, Vol. I, p. 682) if this term indicated Maḍōmmaṇapāla’s imminent death ! Mr. J. C. Ghosh thought (ibid, Vol. II, p. 139) of a possible reference to Maḍōmmaṇapāla’s birthplace. I believe some king of dīkshā or initiation is meant by the word mukti here. This would at least furnish an occasion for the land grant.
[2] above, Vol. XXV, pp. 64 ff.

1263 A.D. Should this date be accepted, it brings his era near to that of the Muhammadan writers, and as his reign is said by Wassāf to have been a long one, it is so far confirmatory of their narratives ; but then comes the difficulty of the earlier Ceylon date, for it is not probable that two such contentions for a precisely similar object between two brothers of the same names should have taken place so soon after each other, although the dates differ so materially as the middle of the twelfth, the middle of the thirteenth, and beginning of the fourteenth centuries.”

_____________________

Since Sir Walter Elliot made the above remarks, a number of inscriptions giving astronomical details admitting of calculation and verification had been found and thanks to the labours of Kielhorn, Swamikannu Pillai and others, the accession of Jaṭāvarman Kulaśēkhara I with the introduction of the Tiruppūvaṇam plates had been fixed at A.D. 1190 and these have been noticed in my article on the plates. I need hardly add anything to Sir Walter Elliot’s careful descriptions of the symbols on the seal. But so far as I know, no attempt seems to have been made to decipher the legend on the during these sixty odd years. I think I can only give a tentative reading of it here, but before doing so I may be permitted to say that on a close examination of the letters I am led to think that the woodcut is either not perfect or that the original is faulty in engraving. The legend is a Sanskrit verse in the Anushṭubh metre. The first half of it can be confidently read as Samasta-jagatīpāla-mauli-māl-ōpalālitam. The first word of the next half is certainly śāsanaṁ and the last word is Jaṭilavarmmaḥ. The last syllable appears as in the woodcut. All that could be said about the seven syllables between these two words is that they may stand for ‘ śāśvataṁ rājñō ētat ’. Śāśvataṁ looks like mrāsanaṁ or srasanam in the woodcut and ētat looks like jayatu ; and rajñō is also not beyond doubt. The whole legend may be tentatively read :─

A fresh endeavour should be made to secure the seal. If this is done and a good facsimile of it taken, it will be quite possible to read the second half of the legend with certainty. This seal and the other referred to in the extract given from the Coins of Southern India might have been returned to the temple authorities sometime after the plates had been sent and they, perhaps not knowing that the seals belong to the two sets of plates, might have kept them loose. A careful search of the temple treasury may bring the seals again to light. For the present, we must be satisfied with the woodcut which we owe to the sagacity and forethought of the late Sir Walter Elliot.

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