No. 10─ KARKALA INSCRIPTION OF BHAIRAVA II. ;
BY H. KRISHNA SASTRI, B.A.
The village of Kârkaḷa, which is mentioned as Kârakaḷa in this inscription (text line 14) and
other connected ones, is 18 miles east-south-east of Uḍipi, the head-quarters of the tâluka in which
it is situated, and 10 miles north of Mûḍabidure. It is the largest Jaina settlement in the South
Canara district of the Madras presidency and contains, besides the colossal image of Gummaṭa,
a number of Jaina temples which are ruined and out of repair with the single exception of
the Chaturmukhabasti. This temple is situated opposite to the Jaina maṭha at Kârkaḷa
on a hillock half as high as the hill on which the colossus stands. Hiriyaṅgaḍi, i.e. ‘ the big
bâzâr,’which is now a few furlongs distant from Kârkaḷa, but appears, from its very name, to have
once formed the commercial quarter of the town, contains, besides some bastis, a beautifully
 A photograph of this colossus is given above, Vol. VII. Plate facing p. 112.
 For a detailed description of this temple by Mr. Walhouse see Ind. Ant. Vol. V. p. 39 f. ; Mr. Sturrock’s
South Canara Manual, Vol. I. p. 89 f. and the Government Epigraphist’s Annual Report for 1900-01, paragraph 6.
 The Jaina maṭha at Kârkaḷa is presided over by a pontiff, just as the maṭhas at Mûḍabidure, Śravaṇa-Beḷgoḷa and Humcha. He bears the title Lalitakîrti and is reported to be the trustee of the Jaina temples at
Kârkaḷa and in its neighbourhood. In the inscriptions at Hiriyaṅgaḍi near Kârkaḷa, the teachers to whose pontificate Kârkaḷa and the surrounding country belonged are generally called Lalitakîrti-bhaṭṭârakadêva, with the word
Maladhâri prefixed to it in two of them, viz. Nos. 66 and 70 of the Government epigraphist’s collection for 1901.
No. 67 of the same collection makes Lalitakîrti the vichârakarttâ or ‘ supervisor ’ of the charity recorded therein ;
and No. 70 says that these teachers belonged to the Kundakunda division, were lords of the lineage of
Panaśôkâ and members of the Kâḷôgragaṇa. In v. 4 of the subjoined inscription, which does not mention their
division (anvaya), it is stated that the Lalitakîrtis belonged to the Dêśîgaṇa. Perhaps Kâḷôgragaṇa was a
local branch of the Dêśîgaṇa. Panaśôkâ has been identified with Hanasôge in the Mysore State ; see above,
Vol. VII. p. 110, note 1.
 The inscription gives this hill the name of Chikkabeṭṭa (i.e. ‘ the small hill ’) in order to distinguish it from
the higher hill on which the colossus is set up.
 See Ind. Ant. Vol. V. p. 40.