EARLY KALACHURIS OF MAHISHMATI
themselves came in course of time to be known as the Mauryas.1 But if the Traikūtakas
were descended from the imperial family of Magadha, it looks strange that they make no
mention of their proud lineage in their records. It would appear, therefore, that when the
Kalachuris conquered Konkan, they supplanted the Traikūtakas by the Mauryas, who
continued as their feudatories until both the royal families were ousted by Pulakēśin II.
The downfall of the Traikūtakas may thus be dated in the first quarter of the sixth century
The Traikūţakas kingdom at its largest extent seems to have extended from the Kīm in
the north to the Krishnā in the south, and to have comprised South Gujarat, North Konkan,
and the Nasik, Poona and Satara Districts of Maharashtra. It is interesting to note that
the Traikūtakas maintained a fleet for the protection of their maritime provinces. During
their regime Trikūta seems to have become famous as an emporium of salt. Their capital has
not yet been definitely located. As observed already, Aniruddhapura seems to have been
the capital at least during the reign of Vyāghrasēna. Dr. Hultzsch, on the authority of a
statement of the lexicographer Yādava, identifies Anirudhapura with Śūrpāraka, modern
Sōpārā, in the Thana District. But Yādava merely states that the Aparānta country included
Śūrpāraka.2 Aniruddhapura, mentioned as the place of issue in the Surat plates, is probably
identical with the victorious Aniruddhapurī, a Brāhmana resident of which received a grant
of land in the Surat District from the Sēndraka prince Allaśakti. It would, therefore,
appear that Aniruddhapura was situated somewhere in the Surat District, but its exact
location cannot be fixed.
The Traikūtakas were followers of Hinduism and devotees of the god Vishnu. Both
their copper-plate grants were made to Brāhmanas for the increase of religious merit of
their parents and themselves. That Buddhism also flourished in their kingdom is shown
by the Kanhēri plate which records the erection of a chaitya dedicated to Śāradvatīputra.
The pilgrim who got it built came from the distant province of Sindh. This testifies to
the peace and order which generally prevailed in the kingdom of the Traikūtakas.
THE EARLY KALACHURIS OF MAHISHMATI
We have no definite information about the capital of the Katachchuris or Early
Kalachuris. All their known copper-plate grants were issued from their camps fixed at
different places such as Ujjayini and Vidiśā in Malwa and Ānandapura in Gujarat. It appears
probable, however, that they ruled from Māhishmatī, modern Onkār Māndhātā,3 which
from very early times has been famous as a holy city. Even in later times when it
had ceased to be their capital, the memory of its past glory was fresh in the mind of the
people; for Rājaśekhara in his Bālarāmāyana4 and Murāri in his Anargharāghava5 mention
it as the common or family capital of the Kalachuri kings. Besides, some later princes
of the Haihaya dynasty, who ruled in the south as feudatories of the Chālukyas, mention
with pride their title Māhishmatī-puravar-ēśvara ‘the lord of Māhishmatī, the best of the towns.’6
1C.A.D., p. clx. n. I.
2 See below, p. 27.
3 For the identification, see Fleet’s article ‘Mahishamandala and Māhishmatī’ in J.R.A.S. (1910),
pp. 425 ff. Like Kālidāsa, Rājaśēkhara also describes Māhishmatī as surrounded by the Narmadā. Some
identify the city with Maheshvar in the former Indore State.
6See e.g. the Kembhāvi inscription (dated 1054 A.C.) of Mahāmanadalēśvara Rēvarasa. Bomb. Gaz.,
Vol. I, part ii, p. 439.