The Indian Analyst

South Indian Inscriptions







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Kalachuri Chedi Era



Early Kalachuris of Mahishmati

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Sendrakas of Gujarat

Early Chalukyas of Gujarat

Dynasty of Harischandra




Economic Condition



Genealogical Tables

Texts And Translations

Incriptions of The Abhiras

Inscriptions of The Maharajas of Valkha

Incriptions of The Mahishmati

Inscriptions of The Traikutakas

Incriptions of The Sangamasimha

Incriptions of The Early Kalcahuris

Incriptions of The Early Gurjaras

Incriptions of The Sendrakas

Incriptions of The Early Chalukyas of Gujarat

Incriptions of The Dynasty of The Harischandra

Incriptions of The Kalachuris of Tripuri

Other South-Indian Inscriptions 

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Volume 3

Vol. 4 - 8

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Volume 10

Volume 11

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Volume 22
Part 1

Volume 22
Part 2

Volume 23

Volume 24

Volume 26

Volume 27





Annual Reports 1935-1944

Annual Reports 1945- 1947

Corpus Inscriptionum Indicarum Volume 2, Part 2

Corpus Inscriptionum Indicarum Volume 7, Part 3

Kalachuri-Chedi Era Part 1

Kalachuri-Chedi Era Part 2

Epigraphica Indica

Epigraphia Indica Volume 3

Indica Volume 4

Epigraphia Indica Volume 6

Epigraphia Indica Volume 7

Epigraphia Indica Volume 8

Epigraphia Indica Volume 27

Epigraphia Indica Volume 29

Epigraphia Indica Volume 30

Epigraphia Indica Volume 31

Epigraphia Indica Volume 32

Paramaras Volume 7, Part 2

Śilāhāras Volume 6, Part 2

Vākāṭakas Volume 5

Early Gupta Inscriptions

Archaeological Links

Archaeological-Survey of India



in these guilds to make perpetual endowments for religious purposes.1 Traders and artisans also had their own corporations called ganas. There were, besides, other corporate organisations of persons who followed the same avocation. The Nagardhan plates of Svāmirāja mention a corportaion of elephant-drivers (Mahāmātras).2 This corporation seems to have been a influential one. It had its own assembly called samūha. its president was called S thavira, and members of the Executive Committee Pramukhas, among whom was called sthavira, and members of the Executive committee pramukhas, among whom were included the Pilupati (Chief of the Elephant force) and the Hastivaidya (Physician of Elephants). The grant of land made by the corporation had to be approved by the reigning king, but it affixed its characteristic seal to the charter. This circumstance indicates how much power it wielded in the state.

There were, doubtless, several other guilds and corporations functioning in both the periods, but very few of them find a mention in our records. The Vāgūlikas and Pāyatis, who donated fifty leaves for each bundle sold in the market in favour of a temple at kārītalāi, were probably guilds of traders in betel-leaves.3 The kārītalāi inscription speaks of the Deśi or foreman of the guild of five kinds of spirituous liquors (Kashaāya-paňchaka).4 These guilds and corporations had their own militia which could be called upon to serve the State when necessary.

There was a mandapikā or market pavilion in every town and village, where the various articles brought for sale were assessed and taxed.5 A voucher called yuga was issued for the small fee of half a paura, paid for permission tp exhibit the articles for sale in the market.6 It was valid for a day. There were markets (apanas)7 and shops (vithis)8 Where articles were offered for sale in stalls (avaras).9 Our records incidentally mention several articles which were brought and sold in the markets of towns and villages. They include, besides food-grains, arecanuts, betel leaves, salt, pepper, and other commodities such as liquor, oil, grass and vegetables. Elephants and horses also were sold in the markets.10 Traders and merchants were required to pay excise and octroi duties as well as a sales tax on the things sold in the market.

Our records mention different kinds of weights and measures. They varied from district to district.11 One grant mentions the larger measure (brihan-māna),12 implying thereby that there was a smaller measure also in vogue there. The standard land-measure was the nivartana. Several varieties of it are mentioned in ancient works.13 The nivartana, current in the dominion of the Early Kalachuris, is described in the Ābhōna plates as ubhayachatvarimsaka-nivartanin, i.e., measuring forty dandas in length and breadth, or 1600 square dandas14 It was, therefore, larger than the nivartanas mentioned in ancient works. sometimes land was measured in halas.15 A hala signified as much land as could be

1No. 1, 11. 8-13.
2No. 120, 11. 4 ff.
3No. 42, 1. 34. It is noteworthy that the inscription mentions the chief of the Vāgūlikas.
4Ibid., 1. 33.
5No. 45, 1. 30.
6Ibid., 1.31. See also p. 223, n.6.
7 No. 31, 1.35.
8No. 45, 1.31.
9No. 31. 1.35.
10No. 42,1.33; No. 45, 11.30-36.
11Cf.tad-vishaya-mānēna in No. 19, 1.10.
12No. 20, 11.9-10.
13See below, p. 43, n. 6.
14No. 14,1.18. With this compare in SNS. adhāya I, v. 200.
15No. 90, 1. v. 27.


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