What Is India News Service
Tuesday, June 14, 2011

The Indian Analyst


South Indian Inscriptions






List of Plates


Additions And Corrections



Inscriptions And Translations

Kalachuri Chedi Era



Early Kalachuris of Mahishmati

Early Gurjaras

Kalachuri of Tripuri

Kalachuri of Sarayupara

Kalachuri of South Kosala

Sendrakas of Gujarat

Early Chalukyas of Gujarat

Dynasty of Harischandra




Economic Condition



Genealogical Tables

Texts And Translations

Incriptions of The Abhiras

Inscriptions of The Maharajas of Valkha

Incriptions of The Mahishmati

Inscriptions of The Traikutakas

Incriptions of The Sangamasimha

Incriptions of The Early Kalcahuris

Incriptions of The Early Gurjaras

Incriptions of The Sendrakas

Incriptions of The Early Chalukyas of Gujarat

Incriptions of The Dynasty of The Harischandra

Incriptions of The Kalachuris of Tripuri

Other South-Indian Inscriptions 

Volume I

Volume II

Volume III

Vol. IV - VIII

Volume IX

Volume X

Volume XI

Volume XII

Volume XIII

Volume XIV

Volume XV

Volume XVI

Volume XVII

Volume XVIII

Volume XIX

Volume XX

Volume XXII_Part I

Volume XXII_Part II



Volume XXIII

Volume XXIV

Archaeological Links

Archaeological-Survey of India




In ancient times Dakshina Kosala (South Kosala) comprised modern Chattisgarh and the adjoining territory in the State of Orissa up to the boundary of the Katak District.1 In the Puranas this country is mentioned with Traipura (the tract round Tripuri near Jabalpur), Kalinga (part of the state of Orissa) and Mekala (the region near the source of the Narmada).2 These countries are further said to be situated on the back, i.e., the table land of the Vidhya mountain. To distinguish this Kosala from another territory of the same name, the capital of which was Ayodhya in the State of Uttar Pradesh, it was called Dakshina Kosala or South Kosala. The feminine from of the name, viz Kosala is occasionally met with in literature and inscription.3 The ancient capital of this country was Kusavati, founded by Kusa, the elder son of Rama, the hero of the Ramayana. This city, the Puranas tell us, was situated on a peak of the Vindhya mountain, But its exact loca- tion has not yet been determined.

Our knowledge of the history of Chattisgarh before the advent of the Kalachuris is very meagre. In the beginning of the sixth century A.C., the country was ruled by Bhimasena II whose copper -plate grant dated in the Gupta year 182(501-2 A.C.) has been discovered at Arang.4 He or his sucessor was ousted by the king of the Sarabhapura dynasty.Maha-Pravaraja, the last known king of this family, was overthrown by indrabalas of the Somavamsa. the Somavamsis ruled in Chhattisgarh for some genera- tions. Mahasivagupta alias Balarjuna the last known king of this dynasty, flourished in the beginning of the seventh century A.C. He had a long reign of more than 57 years and was on the throne when the Chinese traveller Yuan Chwang visited Dakshina Kosala.5

About this time, Pulakesin II of the Early Chalukya dynasty invaded Kosala after conquering the three Maharashtras. The Aihole inscription of his reign, dated 634 A.C., states that the people of kosala, like those of Kalinga, were overawed by the invading forces.6 The ruling king evidently submitted to the mighty emperer, who allowed him to govern his kingdom as his vassal.

Some time after Pulekesin II's invasion, the Somavamsis were ousted from the Raipur District by their southern neighbours, the Nala kings, who held the Bastar District of Madhya Pradesh and the adjoining parts of the Vishakhapatnam District of the Madras State. A stone inscription of this dynasty, still existing at Rajim in the Raipur District, Mentions three king, viz., Prithviraja, Viruparaja and Vilasatunga. The last of these erected the temple of Rajivachana at Rajim for the religion merit of his son who had died. The inscrip- tion can can be referred to about 700 A.C. on the evidence of palaeography.,7

We do not know how long the rule of the Somavamsis and the Nalas lasted in Chhatti- garh. An inscription on the architrave of the door of the sanctum in an exquisitely carved temple of Siva at Pali, about 12 miles north of Ratanpur in the Bilaspur District, records The construction of the temple by Vikramaditya, Son of Malladeva. this inscription which was deciphered by Dr. D. R. Bhandarkar fifty years ago, has not recieved from

1The Somavamsi kings whose copper-plates records grants of land in the former Patna State and Sambalpur District call themselves 'lord of Kosala'.
2 Vayupurana, adhyaya 45, V. 133.
3 MBH., (Cr. Ed.) Aranyakaparvan, ahyaya 83, V.10; Ep. Ind., Vol.IX, p 271.
4Ep. Ind., Vol. IX, PP. 342 and plate. I have shown that the correct reading of the date is G.182,
5Ibid., Vol XXIII,pp. 118 ff.; Vol XXVII, p. 325.
6ibid., Vol VI, p.6.
7Ibid., Vol XXVI, pp. 49 ff.


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