Buddhist monasteries and about 10000 Brethren, all Mahāyānists, in Dakshina Kōsala.1 The
reigning king Mahāśivagupta-Bālārjuna made grants to Buddhist vihāras, though he him-self was a fervent devotee of Śiva. But in later times Buddhism declined here as in other
parts of the country. There is not a single reference to any Buddhist vihara or Bhikshu
in the Kalachuri inscriptions of Dakshina Kōsala. The Buddhist canonical and philoso-phical works were, however, studied by some people. Rudrasiva, the spiritual teacher of
Jajalladeva I, is described as conversant with the works of Dinnāga and others.2 Kāśala,
who composed the Koni stone inscription, tells us that he had knowledge of three ratnas
(i.e., probably Buddha, Dharma and Sangha) and that he had mastered the āgamas of the
Buddha and others.3 Some learned Brahmanas also, who were required to take part in
philosophical debates, must have been well acquainted with the Buddhist systems
There are also no references to the Jainas in the Kalachuri inscriptions of Dakshina
Kōsala, but there is no doubt that Jainism had some followers there. Images of the Jaina
Tirthankaras have been discovered at Ārang, Sirpur, Mallār, Dhanpur, Ratanpur and
Padampur, these at Mallar being colossal.4
It is noteworthy that many of the grants made to Brāhmanas by the Kalachuris
of Dakshina Kōsala were on the occasion of a solar or a lunar eclipse. Of the sixteen
grants included here, as many as nine were made at the time of eclipses, five being lunar
and four solar.5 Three grants were made on a sankrānti,6 one on the akshaya tritīyā7
which is regarded as a very holy day, and one on the sraddha-tithi of the donorís father8.
In the case of the remaining two, no auspicious occasion has been mentioned.9
Like religion, the social life also changed considerably in course of time. In the
earlier period people had a broader outlook on social matters. The caste system had
not become quite rigid. Foreign tribes like the Sakas were welcomed to the Hindu
fold and were assigned their rightful place in the social structure. Hence they did not
try to conceal their racial origin, but proudly stated it in their records. The Śaka king
Srīdharavarman, for instance, makes a specific mention of his race in both the records of
his reign.10 The Gurjaras also make no attempt in their earlier grants to trace their pedigree
from a mythological or legendary hero, but take pride in stating that they were born
in the Gurjara-vamśa.11 The Śakas, the Gurjaras and the Hunas became completely
absorbed in the Hindu society in course of time and had matrimonial relations with the
most notable Kshatriya families. The Hunas came to be reckoned among the thirty-six
Kshatriya families of the best blood, their foreign origin having been completely forgotten.
We find that the Kalachuri Emperor Karna, who claimed to belong to the lunar race, had
1 O. Y. C., Vol. II, p. 200.
2 NO. 77, 1. 27.
3 No. 90, 1. 27.
4 Raipur District Gazetteer, pp. 65-66; Bilaspur District Gazetteer, p. 61.
5 For lunar eclipses, see Nos. 82, 83, 86, 91 and 102, and for solar ones, see Nos. 89, 90, 117 and 112.
6 Nos. 75, 92 and 101.
7 No. 94, 11. 20-21.
8 No. 123, 1. 27.
9 Nos. 76 and 99.
10 No. 5, 1. 2; No. 119, 1. 2.
11 See, e.g., No. 16, 1. 2.
12 Prithvīrājarāsō, I, 135. The list with a few minor changes occurs in the Kumārapālacharita