What Is India News Service
Tuesday, June 14, 2011

The Indian Analyst


South Indian Inscriptions






List of Plates


Additions And Corrections



Inscriptions And Translations

Kalachuri Chedi Era



Early Kalachuris of Mahishmati

Early Gurjaras

Kalachuri of Tripuri

Kalachuri of Sarayupara

Kalachuri of South Kosala

Sendrakas of Gujarat

Early Chalukyas of Gujarat

Dynasty of Harischandra




Economic Condition



Genealogical Tables

Texts And Translations

Incriptions of The Abhiras

Inscriptions of The Maharajas of Valkha

Incriptions of The Mahishmati

Inscriptions of The Traikutakas

Incriptions of The Sangamasimha

Incriptions of The Early Kalcahuris

Incriptions of The Early Gurjaras

Incriptions of The Sendrakas

Incriptions of The Early Chalukyas of Gujarat

Incriptions of The Dynasty of The Harischandra

Incriptions of The Kalachuris of Tripuri

Other South-Indian Inscriptions 

Volume I

Volume II

Volume III

Vol. IV - VIII

Volume IX

Volume X

Volume XI

Volume XII

Volume XIII

Volume XIV

Volume XV

Volume XVI

Volume XVII

Volume XVIII

Volume XIX

Volume XX

Volume XXII_Part I

Volume XXII_Part II



Volume XXIII

Volume XXIV

Archaeological Links

Archaeological-Survey of India




had suffered any diminution at the beginning of the latter’s reign. It may, therefore, be asked how Kumāragupta allowed Subandhu to enjoy independence just on the border of the Avanti province which was undoubtedly under Gupta rule at the time. The reason is not far to seek. The Anūpa country, where Subandhu was ruling, comprised the territory along both the banks of the Narmadā, now included in the Nemad Districts of Madhya Pradesh and Madhya Bharat as well as the adjoining territory. Just about this time there was rising the powerful State of the Traikūtakas across the Narmadā.1 According to the Purānas, the Ābhīra rule lasted for 167 Years. The Ābhīras were succeeded by the Traikūtakas, who soon extended their sway to Northern Maharashtra, Konkan and Gujarat. The Kingdom of Māhishamtī may, therefore, have been allowed to continue as a buffer state between the dominions of the Traikūtakas and the Guptas.

Subandhu’s descendants may have continued to rule from Māhishmatī for some years more; but when the Vākātaka Narēndrasēna (circa 405-470 A.C.) extended his suzerainty to Malwa, he must have annexed the intervening kingdom of Anūpa. Thereafter, the country was governed by a scion of the Vākātaka family. The narrative in the eighth chapter of the Daśakumāracharita, which appears to have a historical basis,2 shows that the last Vakataka Emperor (probably Harishēna) had placed one of his sons on the throne of Māhishmatī. Soon thereafter, the country was occupied by the Kalachuris in circa 525 A.C.


This royal dynasty derived its name from Trikuta or a three-peaked mountain or the district in which it was situated. This was evidently the home of the royal family. Several mountains named Trikūta situated in all the four directions of India are known from Sanskrit literature and lexicons. According to the Vishnu3 and Mārkandēya4 Purānas, Trikūta was the name of the southern ridge of the mythical Mēru mountain. It was, therefore, situated in the north. Hēmachandra5 and Mahēśvara,6 who in their lexicons give Suvēla as its synonym, evidently place it in Ceylon. An ancient commentator of Bhartrihari’s Vākyapadāiya7 states that Trikūta was the name of a mountain in the Trikalinga or Andrha country. Finally, Kālidāsa places Trikūta in Aparānta8 or North Konkan, and his view receives confirmation from Kēsava’s Kalpadrukōśa9 which gives it as a name of the Sahyādri range. In recent times, R. B. Hiralal, who identified the Traikūtakas with the Kalachuris, has expressed the view that Trikūta is identical with the Sātpurā mountain which was so called on account of its three prominent peaks, viz., the

1 The earliest known Traikūtaka king was Indradatta, who must have flourished about 415 A.C. as his son Dahrasēna’s Pardi grant is dated in K.207 (456-57A.C.) Dahrasēna is known to have performed an Aśvamēdha sacrifice. See No. 8, 1.2.
2See my article entitled ‘Historical Data in Dandin’s Daśakumāracharita’ in A.B.O.R.I., Vol. XXVI, pp.20 f. .
3VSHP., amśa II, adhyāya 2, v. 28. .
4 MP., adhyāya 55, v.6.
5 Suvēlah syāt Trimukutas=Trikūtas=Trikakuch=cha sab in Abhindhānachintāmani, Bhūmikānda, v. 96.
6Viśvaprakāśa (Chaukhamba Sanskrit Series), p. 39. According to Vālmīki’s Rāmāyana (Aranyakānda, 2,I) Rāvana’s Lankā was situated on Trikūta.
7Commenting on the Kārikā, Parvatād=āgmam labdhvā, etc., of the Vākyapadīa (Kānda II, v. 489), Punyarāja says Parvatāt Trikūt-aikadēśa-varti-Trikaling aikadēśāt.
8Raghuvamśa, Canto IV, vv. 58-59.
9Sahyāchalas=tu Mūrdhādris=Trikūtas=Trikakuch=cha sah in Kalpadrukōśa, Vol. I (Gaekwad’s Orinetal Series),p.342,s1.14. Trikakut which is given here as synonym of Trikūta is mentioned by Pānini (V,4, 147), but it cannot evidently be the Trikūta of North Konkan.


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