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Friday, March 09, 2012


The Indian Analyst


 

North Indian Inscriptions


 

Contents

Introduction

Preface

Contents

List of Maps and Plates

Abbreviations

Additions and Corrections

Images

Introduction

Political History

The Early Silaharas

The Silaharas of North Konkan

The Silaharas of South Konkan

The Silaharas of Kolhapur

Administration

Religious Condition

Social Condition

Economic Condition

Literature

Architecture and Sculpture

Texts And Translations  

Inscriptions of the Silaharas of North Konkan

Inscriptions of The Silaharas of South Konkan

Inscriptions of The Silaharas of kolhapur

APPENDIX I  

Additional Inscriptions of the Silaharas

APPENDIX II  

A contemporary Yadava Inscription

Index

Other South-Indian Inscriptions 

Volume I

Volume II

Volume III

Vol. IV - VIII

Volume IX

Volume X

Volume XI

Volume XII

Volume XIII

Volume XIV

Volume XV

Volume XVI

Volume XVII

Volume XVIII

Volume XIX

Volume XX

Volume XXII_Part I

Volume XXII_Part II

Tanjavur

Tiruvarur

Volume XXIII

Volume XXIV

Archaeological Links

Archaeological-Survey of India

SOCIAL CONDITION

 

..In the age of the Śilāhāras Hindu society was divided theoretically into four castes, viz. Brāhmana, Kshatriya, Vaiśya and Śūdra, but in reality these had been subdivided into innumerable sub-castes. In the caste system the Brāhmaṇa had an honoured place. He was expected to lead a pious and restrained life, and to devote himself to learning and the performance of religious rites. His six duties laid down in the Smṛitis were to study the sacred texts and to teach them to the higher castes, to perform religious rites for himself and others, and to make gifts to and to receive them from others. A Brāhmaṇa’s life from morning to night was strictly regulated. He was not to accumulate wealth, but was to content himself with provisions sufficient for from one to twelve days. Nonviolence, truthfulness, non-stealing, morality, restraint of sense, charity, self-control, compassion and forgiveness were the virtues preached in the Smṛitis for all members of the society, but expected especially of the Brāhmaṇas. The ideal set before them was, indeed, a high one. It is no wonder that those who attained it received high honour in society.

.. In selecting recipients for their grants the Śilāhāras took care to see that they were renowned for learning as well as for pious life. As Yājñavalkya says, one does not become worthy for receiving a gift by mere learning or by mere austere life. He alone is a worthy recipient for a gift who has both these and also character.[1] Several recipients of gifts are described as Mahā- Brāhmaṇas[2] or even Parama-Brāhmaṇas[3] (learned Brāhmaṇas), some of them being called Kramavids[4] (those who had mastered the krama-pāṭha of the Vēdas), Dvivēdins[5] or Chaturvēdins.[6] They are described as always engaged in the six duties laid down for Brāhmaṇas and as proficient in the performance of religious rites.[7] The names of such Brāhmaṇas are mentioned in the honorific plural in some records to show them due reverence.[8] They were invited from faroff places like Muñja-sthāna in Central India[9] and Vārāṇasī[10] in North India. Rudra-bhaṭṭōpādhyaya, the donee of the Panhāḷe plates, for instance, is described as Sōmayājī (who had performed a Sōma sacrifice) and had realised Brahman. He was proficient in two Vēdas and had sanctified himself by the darśana of and bathing in the sacred river Gaṅgā.[11] In later records such details about the donees are conspicuous by their absence.

.. It would be interesting to see how the Brāhmaṇas of the different Vēdic Śākhās were geographically distributed. Among the donees of the Śilāhāra grants, the Ṛigvēdins preponderate. Most of them hailed from Karahāta (modern Karhāḍ in the Sātārā District).[12] some had already settled down in North Koṅkaṇ.[13] Even now these Brāhmaṇas are found in large numbers in that part of the country. In some later records of the Kolhapur District,
_______________________

[1] See न विद्यया केवलया तपसा वाऽपि पात्नता। यत्न वृत्तमिमे चोभे तद्धि पात्नं प्रकोर्तितम्‌॥Yājñnavalkya, I, 200.
[2] No. 9, line 38 ; No. 10, line 27; No.13, line 60.
[3] No. 23, line 67.
[4] No. 6, lines 72-73 ; No. 48, line 40.
[5] No. 23, line 69.
[6] No. 48, line 39.
[7] No. 9, lines 37-38.
[8] No. 48, lines 39-41. It is noteworthy that some other Brāhmaṇa donees mentioned in the same grant who were not so learned are referred to in the singular.
[9] No. 15, line 62, Muñjasthāna may be identical Muñjapur, south of Rādhanpur in Gujarāt.
[10] No. 23, line 67.
[11] Loc. cit.
[12] No. 14, lines 61, 104, 118 etc.
[13] No. 14, line 61.

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