The Indian Analyst

North Indian Inscriptions







List of Plates


Additions and Corrections



Political History


Social History

Religious History

Literary History

Gupta Era

Krita Era

Texts and Translations

The Gupta Inscriptions


Other South-Indian Inscriptions 

Volume 1

Volume 2

Volume 3

Vol. 4 - 8

Volume 9

Volume 10

Volume 11

Volume 12

Volume 13

Volume 14

Volume 15

Volume 16

Volume 17

Volume 18

Volume 19

Volume 20

Volume 22
Part 1

Volume 22
Part 2

Volume 23

Volume 24

Volume 26

Volume 27





Annual Reports 1935-1944

Annual Reports 1945- 1947

Corpus Inscriptionum Indicarum Volume 2, Part 2

Corpus Inscriptionum Indicarum Volume 7, Part 3

Kalachuri-Chedi Era Part 1

Kalachuri-Chedi Era Part 2

Epigraphica Indica

Epigraphia Indica Volume 3

Indica Volume 4

Epigraphia Indica Volume 6

Epigraphia Indica Volume 7

Epigraphia Indica Volume 8

Epigraphia Indica Volume 27

Epigraphia Indica Volume 29

Epigraphia Indica Volume 30

Epigraphia Indica Volume 31

Epigraphia Indica Volume 32

Paramaras Volume 7, Part 2

Śilāhāras Volume 6, Part 2

Vākāṭakas Volume 5

Early Gupta Inscriptions

Archaeological Links

Archaeological-Survey of India



power. About the beginning of the Christian era, however, they appear to have risen to the rank of a political Saṁgha. This is indicated by the issue of their coins which “are found in the Eastern Panjab, and all over the country between the Sutlej and the Jumna rivers. Two large finds have been made at Sonpath, between Delhi and Karnal.”1 This coinage ranges between 50 and 350 A.D. Like the Mālavas they style themselves Gaṇa on their money. It is thus clear that they were a political Saṁgha and especially of the type of tribal oligarchy when they struck these coins. This inference is established beyond all doubt by a stone inscription2 found at Bijayagaḍh near Bayānā in the Bharatpur District. It is true that it is only a fragment of an inscription, but enough of it has been preserved to show that it is the record of a personage who was Mahārāja and Mahāsēnāpati and also a leader (puraskṛita) of the Yaudhēya Gaṇa. The title Mahārāja and the word Gaṇa show that in the year 371 A.D., the date of the inscription, the Yaudhēyas were not only an oligarchy but also a rāja-śabd-ōpajīvin Saṁgha, every member of which styled himself a Rājan or Mahārāja.3 Further, the personage in question was one of the Gaṇa-mukhyas or ‘heads of the Gaṇa’ as he has been designated puraskṛita, ‘a leader’.4 Further still as he has also been designated Mahāsēnāpati, it means that he was a leader of the Yaudhēya Gaṇa as the general of their forces. It was, however, shortly before 150 A.D. that the Yaudhēyas were in the heyday of their glory, for it is in the Junāgaḍh rock inscription of Rudradāman dated in this year that they are described as assuming the epithet of vīra in consequence of the prowess they displayed against all Kshatriyas and spoken of as being mowed down by the Kshatrapa ruler. The Yaudhēyas still survive in the Panjab and Sind. Cunningham has identified them with the Johiyas settled on the banks of the Sutlej, which tract is consequently called Johiyā-bār. “They have become Musulmans and inhabit the banks of the Indus from Bahawalpur and Multan to the Kohistān tāluka of the Karachi district. Parts of Bahawalpur State and the Multan district are still called Johiyāwār. Rem- nants of the tribe still inhabit the Kohistān tāluka of the Karachi district under their own chief who is known as Johiyā-jo-Jām.”5 It seems when they were at the height of their power, that is, slightly prior to 150 A.D., they overran Sindhu and Sauvīra and were settled down there and that it was apparently in these provinces that Rudradāman came into collision with, and inflicted a crushing defeat on them. In the time of Samudragupta, however, they appear to have been confined to their original habitat between the Sutlej and the Jumna going as far south as Bharatpur.

       As regards the Madrakas, their country corresponds roughly to modern Sialkot and surrounding region between the Ravi and Chenab rivers.6 Its capital was Śākala which has been identified with Sialkot. The Madrakas are no doubt the same as Madras and denoted rather a people and not a tribe as seems to be the case here. The latter, probably, were the Jatrikas or Jāṭs who are described as Mlēchchhas in the Karṇa-Parvan (chs. xl and xliv) of the Mahābhārata. The Ābhīras or Ahirs are spread as far east as Bengal and as far south as the Khandesh District of Maharashtra. The correct location of the Ābhīra tribe during Samudragupta’s regime is thus a matter of some difficulty. The earliest epigraphic reference to this tribe is contained in the Gundā inscription of Kshatrapa Rudrasiṁha dated Śaka 103, which records the construction of a well by Sēnāpati Rudrabhūti, who was a son of Sēnāpati Bāpaka and who is therein described as an Ābhīra by extraction.7 But this Bāpaka was a Sēnāpati, and

1 Cunningham, Coins of Ancient India, p. 76; CASIR., Vol. XIV, p. 140.
2 CII., Vol. III, 1888, No. 58.
3 Car. Lec., 1918, pp. 148 and 156.
4 Ibid., pp. 152-53.
5 R. D. Banerji, The Age of the Imperial Guptas, pp. 21-22.
6 H. C. Ray, JPASB., Vol. XVIII, pp. 257 ff.
7 Ep. Ind., Vol. XVI, p. 235.