No. 1─TWO SALANKAYANA CHARTERS FROM KANUKOLLU
B. V. KRISHNA RAO, RAJAHMUNDRY
Two sets of copper plates were found together at Kānukollu, Guḍivāḍa Taluk, Krishna
District (Andhra), about fifteen years ago, while digging the old village site for pāṭimannu, ‘ old
earth ’. The spot where the two sets were found lies outside the ramparts of the old mud fort
which is almost in ruins to-day. The ruined ramparts and the situation of the ancient village
plainly indicate that Kānukollu was an important walled town in olden days and that it lay on
the highway that connected a big emporium or seaport near the northern mouth of the
Kṛishṇā on the one hand and the important provincial town of Guḍivāḍa on the other with
Veṅgīpura, the capital of the Śālaṅkāyana kingdom. Even today Kānukollu lies on the trunk
road that connects Guḍivāḍa with Bhīmavaram in the West Godavari District. When the plates
were discovered, people fondly believed them to be of precious metal and therefore quickly divided
them as spoils among themselves. Actually the ring and the seal of the second set, marked here
as B, were melted down for the purpose of testing the metal. It is indeed fortunate that
none of the plates was destroyed or melted down. The writing on them attracted the attention
and curiosity of the more enlightened amongst the villagers. And it was in no small measure due
to the intervention of the village Karaṇam, Mr. Vinnakoṭa Durga Varaprasada Rao, that the
charters were saved from any further damage. The Karaṇam was good enough to secure these
two sets for me in 1946 when I happened to visit the place. These were later forwarded by me
to the Government Epigraphist for India, Ootacamund, who kindly got their mechanical impressions
prepared in his office.
A.─ Plates of Nandivarman (I), Year 14
This is the earlier of the two sets. It consists of eight plates held together by a ring, the ends
of which were fastened together under an oval seal. The ring had already been cut open and the
plates taken out for examination by somebody even before they reached me. The diameter of the
ring is about 2½ inches while its thickness is about ½ inch. The seal is 1¼ inches in length and one
inch in breadth. The legend and the crest on it are completely worn out on account of corrosion.
But we know that the emblem on the Śālaṅkāyana seals is the bull.
 I came to learn from the villagers that several gold and lead coins along with other valuable articles were
picked up but that they were secreted, appropriated or destroyed. People say that even now coins are found here
and there in the ruins of the village.
 [Macron over e and o has not been used in this article.─ Ed.]
 See Bhārati, April, 1950, pp. 69 ff. and Plate ; JAHRS, Vol. XX, pp. 87 ff. and Plate.
 See Journal of the Telugu Academy, Vol. XI, pp. 113-127 ; JAHRS, Vol. V. p. 22.