ASIA CENTRE BANGALORE
Mr. A.P. Venkateshwaran Former Foreign Secretary
Mr. Peter Sinai IFS (retd)
Lt. Gen (Retd.) Ravi Eipe
Support Asia Centre
1843 First Floor, 6th Cross, 20th Main, J.P Nagar, Bangalore Karnataka 560078, India;
Call: (+91 80) 26595150, 26593689
Seminar Summary Reports
"A Historical Perceptive" by Amb. Akbar Mirza Khaleeli "A Strategic perspective" byVice Admiral (Retd) P J Jacob "A Media perspective" by Shri Kesava Menon.
"A Security Assessment" by B. Raman
"The Current Scenario" by Shri K V Rajan, IFS (Retd)
"Implications for India" by Maj. Gen (Retd. Ashok K. Mehta
"Current Situation and its import" by Shri Gururaj Rao
"The Political Scenario" by Dr. Arvind Kumar
"Analysis of Political events" by Dr. Smruti Pattanaik
"Implications for India" by Maj. Gen (Retd.) Dipankar Banerjee
"Strategic Analysis and Opinions "by Maj. Gen (Retd.) Ashok K. Mehta
" Vision and Reality" by Ambassador Shri Rajiv Sikri (Retd)
" Historical Perceptive and Current Realities"
"Defence Cooperation Aspects" by
"A strategic review" by Dr. Brahma Chellaney
" A historic perspective"
"India's options in the global senario" by
"Indo-US core interests" by
Look East Policy
" India's Look-East Policy: Vision and Reality" by Ambassador Shri C.V Ranganathan (Retd)
" Impediments to India’s Look-East
Policy – China’s Reservations and Suggested
"Maritime Aspects of our Look-East Policy" by
Missile and Space Modernisations
Prof. Rajaram Nagappa
A good place to start will be the latest
White Paper on National Defence.
the military by means of science and technology.
Chapter XI of the
white paper deals with ‘Science, Technology and Industry for National
Defence’. From the White Paper it is obvious that the military needs will be
the drivers of the science, technology and industry with spin-offs into the
It is obvious,
that a highly coordinated system involving R&D, academic research,
industrial production and training is the expected outcome of this approach,
with civilian partnership. Major policy changes are underway to promote the
transformation of defence industry enterprises into joint stock enterprises,
diversification and specialization oriented restructuring. Along the same
lines, while retaining state control over weaponry and equipment research and
production, the non-public sector is allowed to compete for research and
areas are specifically mentioned in the white paper and give an idea of the
thrust and priority accorded to them. They include:
Digital simulation and hardware in the loop simulation facilities,
Advanced experimentation and demonstration facilities (to aid higher design
capability and R&D success rate), Precision manufacturing, Special
welding, basic experimentation facilities serving the entire industry’ test
& Evaluation Centres for reliability testing and burn-in screening.
standards and other basic support conditions.
The white paper
cancelled in 1973; its design considered a trajectory over the South Pole to
In the early
have certain advantages of their own. Equipped with a low cost expendable
turbojet or turbofan engine, they can be designed for aircraft missions of
long duration and large range. Low altitude flight along with Stealth features
render them a difficult weapon to counter. They can be equipped with terrain
following features. A terminal guidance system can enable strikes on targets
with pin-point accuracy. They can be launched from various platforms—land,
air, ship or submarine. During the
1991 Gulf War, the
use GPS for navigation. To be more independent on the US GPS fleet,
later missiles are solid-propellant based with improved range and improved CEP
(Centre Error Probable).
It has a
large number of improved versions of short range M-9 and M-11
missiles. The CEP of these is stated to be < 50m.
DF-21 can cover all parts of
missile development has been given importance—especially the long range
ones. Aircraft carriage and launch will increase the reach of such missiles.
Chinese Space Activities
and applications are dual use in nature—serving both civilian and military
needs. With the exception of
Explore outer space and
enhance understanding of the Earth and the cosmos
outer space for peaceful purposes; promote human civilization and social
progress, benefiting the whole of mankind.
demands of economic reconstruction, scientific and technological development, national
security and to raise the scientific standards of the Chinese people
and to protect
services at attractive rates. Customers have included the
conducted an Anti-Satellite Test (ASAT) on
object surveillance and identification systems (investments in optical
telescopes, laser-tracking devices and large phased array radars).
energy weapons (ground-based high and low power lasers).
Side by side,
connectivity is an obvious priority with the optical fibre cable network
expanding fast. A 2002 report showed that the cable network spanned 20000 km
Dai goes on to explain INEW refers to a series of
combat operations that use the integration of electronic warfare and computer
network warfare measures to disrupt the normal operation of enemy battlefield
information systems while protecting one’s own, with the objective of
seizing information superiority. While network war disrupts processing and use
of information, EW disrupts acquisition and forwarding of information.
The core of computer network warfare is to disrupt the layers in which
information is processed with the objective of seizing and maintaining control
of network space. The task of information superiority is vital since it is a
precondition for seizing sea, air and space superiority. The essence is to
achieve the functional effect—which in most cases should result in messing
up the enemy’s decision taking process.
As part of its information warfare practice,
During the years 1988 to 1997, the average annual
increase in defence expenditure
was 14.5%. From 1998 to 2007, the average annual increase rose to 15.9%. In
actual terms the defence expenditure amounted to RMB 297.938 billion ($42.56
billion) in 2006 rising to RMB 355.491 billion ($50.78 billion) in 2007. The
expenditure for 2008 is pegged at RMB 417.769 billion ($59.68 billion). The US
are much higher than the figures given out by the Chinese. For the year 2007,
the lower and upper US estimates are $ 97 billion and $ 140 billion
respectively against the Chinese figure of $ 50 billion. Even the lower US
estimate is close to double the Chinese figure.
Some aspects of the China Defence White Paper of
2008 have been analysed. Chinese plans in the areas of ballistic and cruise
missiles, space and counter-space capabilities, and information warfare have
Critical technologies required for counter-space
strategies need to be prioritized and taken up for development. Small
satellites can play a major role in time to come and their development and
deployment merits serious consideration. An independent launch capability in
this regard should be seriously considered. There is a whole host of
associated technologies and launch services to be addressed as well as
enhancement of the industrial sector and private sector participation.
In the areas of missiles, space, counter-space
and electronic warfare, we have established capabilities and but need to
coordinate and prioritise our development actions to face the challenges and
pose our own new challenges.
Air Chief Marshal Fali Major (Retd.)
power is increasingly determined by economic and technical power rather
than military might. Economic
strength is fundamental and sustains all other aspects of power, but it
must be protected by military strength.
The importance of economic strength is evident in the development
Conflict is endemic to human life.
The past three millennia have seen 14,500 wars, with only 270 years
of peace. It is utopian to
hope for a peaceful, harmonious world.
Asia will still be racked by conflict,
instability and terrorism, but
But instead of hyping
Armed forces must prepare for the
capabilities of other powers, not their intentions.
It is hard for a country to build up
adequate capability, but no country can acquire a full range of capability
all at once. It is good that
The underlying causes of Sino-Indian
differences will remain unaltered. Despite
the hazards of prediction, it is reasonable to envisage that future wars
will not be long-drawn out world wars.
But violence of many kinds will remain, and conflicts of low level,
border wars and regional wars, are always likely.
A key question in defence preparation is
whether it doctrine drives technology or vice versa?
Do we have to go into conflict situations with what is available or
do we demand the technical improvements by enunciating a need newly felt.
It is doctrine that should dictate the technical levels of
preparation. If there is a
perceived gap in capability, the military planners should ask for a
technical ‘fix’ and the process will lead to the approved design and
Another issue is that technology for weapon
systems should be reinforced by building up the capability of personnel
through training, induction of new technologists and specialization.
Older personnel need retraining.
If it is a race with
Prof. Srikanth Kondapalli
During the financial and economic crisis,
An important point is that
Reforms have also been carried out in the
theatre command force, the western and the eastern.
Rapid Response Forces have been set up, twenty units already
posted. They can move from one
point to a target point speedily.
The implication for
Quality upgradation is the main line of
reform. The Indian side used
to count on its capacity to inflict heavy damages on the adversary in a
conflict. But the Chinese have
significantly increased the combat capacity of their army, making up the
In the area of anti-terrorism,
By Ambassador C.V.Ranganathan
The outgoing Naval Chief, Admiral Sureesh
Mehta, in a speech before his retirement, drew attention to the
This apart, there are features which belong
more to the realm of political psychology which are noteworthy in the
India-China comparison. In
spite of spectacular economic growth and the international influence which
it has brought
Viewed in this light, the difference
diminishes, with the Indian public having its own parallel idea of
sovereignty issues, the pursuit of Indian national interests, the threats
thereto. The entire globe is
seen as being connected to
The Chinese type of robustly defined
sovereignty and territorial integrity is interpreted to mean that threats
can arise to the nation, not merely from hostile acts by adversaries, but
also from fundamental contradictions, or even conflicts of interests with
other countries. These include
opposing social systems and ideologies as well as disputed economic
interests, territorial or ocean rights.
Another aspect of asymmetrical
relationships is that the smaller side has more at stake, which makes it
more attentive to the contentious issue.
The larger side runs lower risks in the relationship.
But more attention from the smaller side need not mean a better
understanding, because it tends to exaggerate the risks as well as
expectations and opportunities. The
larger side tends to underplay them. The
insensitivity of the larger power can amplify the paranoia of the smaller
and lead to tension and the erosion of public support.
Difference in capacities creates a situation of different
expectations, even in a stable relationship.
The larger side expects deference from the smaller, while the
smaller expects respect for its autonomy of judgement in pursuing its own
Closer economic, trade and investment links
do not by themselves solve the security dilemmas, e.g., in the Sino-Japan
relationship, the Sino-American and the Sino-South Korean relationships.
Another aspect of
China’s relations with countries
neighbouring India, with the exception of Pakistan, are not so much to
dictate outcomes as to prevent others (India mainly) from undertaking
activities that threaten China’s core interests.
Regional constraints on
For us in South Asia, regional security or
insecurity is perhaps the biggest issue in bilateral relations with
The area from the Irrawady to the Hindukush
faces many different kinds of perils of the unconventional kind:
terrorism, smuggling, drug and arms running, criminal activities,
human trafficking and aggressive messianism.
The permeability of borders has blurred the barrier between
regional security complexes –
A wide gap needs to be bridged in
India-China relations vis-à-vis South Asian security.
Similar security interests are not always approached as common
ones. The low level of
cooperation in security matters is because, as an objective, it is ranked
below the wish to maintain diplomatic, economic and military dominance
vis-à-vis another state. This
applies to Indo-Pak and India-China relations.
A question was asked on
To a question on the likely outcome of the
PM’s meeting with the Chinese PM in
A lady argued that
Chief Marshal Major said that
any PR exercise must be backed by performance.
In our effort to catch up with
Jayaramu expressed the view that
in dealing with
Ranganathan agreed that
following PM Rajiv Gandhi’s visit to
Kondapilli explained that in the
1914 talks with British India, the Chinese envoy disputed, not the McMahon
Line, but the British move to divide
The speaker said there are five policy
The Chairman (Shri Venkateswaran) concluded the discussion.
He observed that
The issues with
The speed of
A cooler examination of the present
situation shows that China’s concerns are related to certain factors and
circumstances affecting India: 1)
the suppressed unrest in Tibet and Xingjian reveals that China does have
problems of unresolved ethnic and class divisions, despite its outstanding
economic advances; 2) the
loyalty that the Dalai Lama commands among Tibetans living in Tibet and
elsewhere, and the reverence accorded to him in Tawang which he visited in
November 2009 despite vehement Chinese protests; have discomfited China;
3) India standing fast by its
decision to allow the Dalai Lama to visit Tawang as a Buddhist leader is a
diplomatic reverse that the Chinese cannot brook.
India’s protest against China undertaking development works in
Pakistan Occupied Kashmir and its refusal to accept the validity of
Chinese visas on separate sheets stapled on to passports by Indians from
Kashmir have demonstrated that India will not give up its rights to
On the other hand,
a policy should go hand in hand with energetic diplomacy, with the
Take advantage of
2) Strengthen the convergence of interests
Utilise every possible forum for high level bilateral meetings, such as
the India-ASEAN summit in
Since in defence matters, the armed forces of both sides can have direct
contacts to promote understanding, and since
If the Chinese leadership is willing,
. 6) Indian leadership must eventually
prepare the parliament and public opinion for a national consensus on
negotiating the border with
In planning defence modernisation, India should be ready for
massive investments, not only for the import of costly weapons like
fighter aircraft, but also to make good the known gaps in the
infrastructure for defence and defence production.
Training on the modern lines for personnel, both military and civilian, in
the defence sector must be systematically pursued as a priority.
Improvements are desirable in putting across the Indian view more
effectively, both to our own citizens and to other countries.
This seminar was an effective means to find
a reasoned and informed understanding of
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