No. 4.─ KONNUR SPURIOUS INSCRIPTION OF AMOGHAVARSHA I. ;
BY F. KIELHORN, PH.D., LL.D., C.I.E. ; GÖTTINGRN.
The stone which bears this inscription is built into a wall of the temple of Paramêśvara
at Konnûr, the ‘ Khonoor ’ of the map, a large village on the south bank of the Malparbhâ
river, 23 miles in a north-easterly direction from Nawalgund, the chief town of the Nawalgund
tâluka, Dhârwâr district ; Indian Atlas, sheet No. 41, long. 75º 34ʹ E., lat. 15º 51ʹ N. I edit the
inscription from an excellent impression, kindly given to me by Dr. Fleet.
The inscribed surface of the stone measures about 5ʹ 4½ʺ high by 2ʹ 10ʺ broad. Above the
writing, in the arched top with which the stone ends, there are some sculptures, viz., in the
middle, a shrine holding a sitting Jaina Tîrthaṁkara, with a chowrie-bearer on either side of
him ; on the proper left of the shrine, a cow with a sucking calf and, above them, a sword and
the sun ; and on the right of the shrine, another chowrie-bearer and an elephant, with the new
moon above them. The writing is well executed, and for the most part in an excellent state
of preservation. The size of the letters is about 7/16.ʺ The character are Kanarese of the
eleventh or twelfth century A.D. The language is Sanskṛit, excepting a verse in lines 62-64,
and the prose passage at the end of the inscription, lines 70-72, which are in Kanarese. The
greater part of the text is in verse. In respect of orthography, it will suffice to draw attention
to the frequent use of the Draviḍian ḷ, and of the sign of the upadhmânîya (also in the word
puhpa for pushpa, l. 40), and to the occasional employment of the sign of the jihvâmûlîya (in
dharmmah=kêvalaṁ, l. 14, yali=kâṁchanaṁ, l. 54, and kîrttih=kakubhâṁ, l. 69).
The inscription divides itself into two parts. Lines 1 to (the word sarvvaṁ in) 59 record
a grant, professedly made by the Râshṭrakûṭa king Amôghavarsha [I.] on a date which falls
in A.D. 860. Lines 59 (from the word mithyâbhâva) to 72, on the other hand, after praises
of the Jaina creed and the two sages Mêghachandra-Traividya and his son Vîranandin,
inform us that, at the request of Huliyamarasa, the Mahâprabhu of Koḷanûra, and others,
Vîranandin had a copper charter, which they had seen, rewritten here as a stone charter.
According to this statement, lines 1-59 of the inscription were copied from a copper-plate
inscription ; and from the dates which we possess for Vîranandin and his father Mêghachandra-Traividya, the time when this copy was made, and when he inscription, as we have it, was
engraved, may approximately be determined to be the middle of the twelfth century A.D.
From an inscription at Śravaṇa-Beḷgoḷa (Roman text, p. 26, ll. 3-6) we know that
Mêghachandra-Traividya died on Thursday, the 2nd December A.D. 1115 ; and according to
a notice published by Mr. Pathak, Vîranandin finished the writing of his Âchâra-sâra on a
date which I find to correspond to Monday, the 25th May A.D. 1153.
The principal part of the inscription (lines 1-59, the alleged copy of a copper-plate inscription)
records, that─ at a total eclipse of the moon on the full-moon tithi of the month Âsvayuja
 I am told by Dr. Fleet that a similar name in the Beḷgaum district is distinctly Koṇṇûr, from the old form
Koṇḍanûr, as well as by actual verification of the present spelling. But the name with which we are here
concerned is derived from Koḷanûra, which occurs in this record.
 The inscription is mentioned by Dr. Fleet in his Dynasties, second ed., p. 406, note 4.
 That other stone inscriptions have been copied from copper-plates, there can be no doubt ; and the fact is
distinctly stated e.g. in the inscriptions in Jour. Bo. As Soc. Vol. IX. p. 281, and Ind. Ant. Vol. VIII. p. 20.
 See Ind. Ant. Vol. XXIII. p. 116, No. 17.
 See ibid. Vol. XIV. p. 14. The date given by Mr. Pathak is ‘ Śaka 1076, the Śrîmukha saṁvatsara, on
Monday the first day of the bright fortnight of Jyaishṭha.’ On the corresponding European date given above, the
first tithi of the bright half of the second Jyaishṭha commenced 3 h. 50 m. after mean sunrise.