The Indian Analyst

South Indian Inscriptions







Additions and Corrections



Dr. Bhandarkar

J.F. Fleet

Prof. E. Hultzsch

Prof. F. Kielhorn

Rev. F. Kittel

H. Krishna Sastri

H. Luders


V. Venkayya


List of Plates

Other South-Indian Inscriptions 

Volume 1

Volume 2

Volume 3

Vol. 4 - 8

Volume 9

Volume 10

Volume 11

Volume 12

Volume 13

Volume 14

Volume 15

Volume 16

Volume 17

Volume 18

Volume 19

Volume 20

Volume 22
Part 1

Volume 22
Part 2

Volume 23

Volume 24

Volume 26

Volume 27





Annual Reports 1935-1944

Annual Reports 1945- 1947

Corpus Inscriptionum Indicarum Volume 2, Part 2

Corpus Inscriptionum Indicarum Volume 7, Part 3

Kalachuri-Chedi Era Part 1

Kalachuri-Chedi Era Part 2

Epigraphica Indica

Epigraphia Indica Volume 3

Indica Volume 4

Epigraphia Indica Volume 6

Epigraphia Indica Volume 7

Epigraphia Indica Volume 8

Epigraphia Indica Volume 27

Epigraphia Indica Volume 29

Epigraphia Indica Volume 30

Epigraphia Indica Volume 31

Epigraphia Indica Volume 32

Paramaras Volume 7, Part 2

Śilāhāras Volume 6, Part 2

Vākāṭakas Volume 5

Early Gupta Inscriptions

Archaeological Links

Archaeological-Survey of India



Among the three Vaishṇava teachers named in inscription, Purushôttama-mahâtîrtha is not mentioned in the lists of the Mâdhva teachers preserved in the Maṭhas,[1] which begin with Ânandatîrtha. The Madhvavijaya,[2] a kâvya by Nârâyaṇapaṇdita, the son of Trivikramapaṇḍita, which describes in detail the life of Ânandatîrtha and his dialectical victories over the Mâyâvâdins or followers of Śaṁkarâchârya, mentions as the spiritual Guru of Ânandatîrtha a certain Achyutaprêkshâchârya, who had the surname of Purushôttamatîrtha,[3] by which he is referred to in verse 1 of the subjoined inscription.

Ânandatîrtha, the second of the teachers mentioned in the inscription, is the famous founder of the Dvaita school of philosophy and occupies in the history of Indian religion a position not in any way unequal to those of the great Śaṁkarâchârya and of Râmânujâchârya. Vaishṇavism, the most characteristic feature of which is bhakti, or love for god, that may be freely practiced by one and all, irrespective of creed and caste, was first started byRâmânujâchârya in the 11th century, was eagerly spread by Ânandatîrtha in the 13th century, and eventually assumed large proportions in the 16th century under Kṛishṇa-Chaitanya, the celebrated Vaishṇava teacher of Bengal. Ânandatîrtha is known by three other names, viz. Pûrṇaprajña, Madhvâchârya and Madhyamandâra. His system has been explained in the Sarvadarśanasaṁgraha of Sâyaṇâchârya under the heading Pûrṇaprajña-darśana. Ânandatîrtha’s direct disciples were Padmanâbhatîrtha, Naraharitîrtha, Mâdhavatîrtha and Akshôbhyatîrtha, who succeeded one after the other to the pontifical seat after the death of Ânandatîrtha.[4]

Several interesting facts regarding the life of Naraharitîrtha, the third teacher mentioned in the inscription, are recorded in a stôtra entitled Narahariyatistôtra, which is included in the Stôtramahôdadhi, Part I.[5] It states that, before conversion to the Mâdhva faith, the Tîrtha was called Śâmaśâstrin,[6] and that he was styled Naraharitîrtha after receiving initiation from Pûrṇaprajña. The latter ordered his pupil to go at once to the capital of the Gajapati king and to be a ruler there. Naraharitîrtha, who had learnt the true import of the Bhâshya[7] form his teacher, would have preferred to become a saṁnyâsin and said :─ “ Lord ! what do I gain by ruling a kingdom ? ” The master replied :─ “ There in the Gajapati kingdom are the images of Râma and Sîtâ, which you must try to acquire with great skill, in order that I may worship them.” Accordingly Naraharitîrtha went to the country of the Gajapati king and was hailed there by the people and the infant king as a fit ruler for their country. The stôtra continues to say that the teacher ruled the Kaliṅga country for twelve years. When the prince attained his majority, he handed back the kingdom to him and, as a present and compensation for the services rendered, requested the king to give him the images of Râma and Sîtâ, which were in the royal treasury. There being secured, Naraharitîrtha returned and gave them to his master Ânandatîrtha. The latter worshipped the images for 80 days and made them over to his first pupil, Padmanâbhatîrtha, who in his turn worshipped them for six years and handed over the charge of

[l] Severa 1Maṭhas or schools of the Mâdhvas are known to exist. The Karṇâṭaka and Dêśastha Brâhamaṇas follow three of them, viz. the Uttarâdimaṭha, Vyâsarâyamaṭha and Râghavêndrasvâmimaṭha. Most of the Śivaḷḷi, Kôṭa and Kôṭêśvara Brâhmaṇas of South Canara are adherents of nine other Maṭhas, viz. eight Maṭhas at Uḍipi and one at Subrahmaṇya (with a branch at Bhaṇḍârakêri near Bârukûr). Lists of Mâdhva Gurus are preserved in each of the three chief Maṭhas and are available for inscription. A similar list has been published by Dr. Bhandarkar in his Report on the Search for Sanskrit Manuscripts for 1882-83. Appendix II. p. 203.
[2] The chief incidents in the life of Madhvâchârya as related in the Madhvavijaya have been put together in a pamphlet entitled “ Madhwacharya.─ A short historic sketch,” by Mr. C. N. Krishnasvami Aiyar, M.A., of the Coimbatore College.
[3] Madhvavijaya, vi. verse 33.
[4] The nine Maṭhas of South Canara recognise only Padmanâbhatîrtha and their nine founders as direct disciples of Ânandatîrtha.
[5] Printed at Bombay by the Nirṇyasâgara Press in 1897.
[6] The lists (See note 1 above) give the name Râmaśâstrin.
[7] This probably refers to the commentary of Ânandatîrtha on the Prasthânatraya ; see below, p. 265, note 5.

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