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Kalachuri Chedi Era



Early Kalachuris of Mahishmati

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Early Chalukyas of Gujarat

Dynasty of Harischandra




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Genealogical Tables

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Incriptions of The Abhiras

Inscriptions of The Maharajas of Valkha

Incriptions of The Mahishmati

Inscriptions of The Traikutakas

Incriptions of The Sangamasimha

Incriptions of The Early Kalcahuris

Incriptions of The Early Gurjaras

Incriptions of The Sendrakas

Incriptions of The Early Chalukyas of Gujarat

Incriptions of The Dynasty of The Harischandra

Incriptions of The Kalachuris of Tripuri

Other South-Indian Inscriptions 

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Annual Reports 1935-1944

Annual Reports 1945- 1947

Corpus Inscriptionum Indicarum Volume 2, Part 2

Corpus Inscriptionum Indicarum Volume 7, Part 3

Kalachuri-Chedi Era Part 1

Kalachuri-Chedi Era Part 2

Epigraphica Indica

Epigraphia Indica Volume 3

Indica Volume 4

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Paramaras Volume 7, Part 2

Śilāhāras Volume 6, Part 2

Vākāṭakas Volume 5

Early Gupta Inscriptions

Archaeological Links

Archaeological-Survey of India



had suffered any diminution at the beginning of the latter’s reign. It may, therefore, be asked how Kumāragupta allowed Subandhu to enjoy independence just on the border of the Avanti province which was undoubtedly under Gupta rule at the time. The reason is not far to seek. The Anūpa country, where Subandhu was ruling, comprised the territory along both the banks of the Narmadā, now included in the Nemad Districts of Madhya Pradesh and Madhya Bharat as well as the adjoining territory. Just about this time there was rising the powerful State of the Traikūtakas across the Narmadā.1 According to the Purānas, the Ābhīra rule lasted for 167 Years. The Ābhīras were succeeded by the Traikūtakas, who soon extended their sway to Northern Maharashtra, Konkan and Gujarat. The Kingdom of Māhishamtī may, therefore, have been allowed to continue as a buffer state between the dominions of the Traikūtakas and the Guptas.

Subandhu’s descendants may have continued to rule from Māhishmatī for some years more; but when the Vākātaka Narēndrasēna (circa 405-470 A.C.) extended his suzerainty to Malwa, he must have annexed the intervening kingdom of Anūpa. Thereafter, the country was governed by a scion of the Vākātaka family. The narrative in the eighth chapter of the Daśakumāracharita, which appears to have a historical basis,2 shows that the last Vakataka Emperor (probably Harishēna) had placed one of his sons on the throne of Māhishmatī. Soon thereafter, the country was occupied by the Kalachuris in circa 525 A.C.


This royal dynasty derived its name from Trikuta or a three-peaked mountain or the district in which it was situated. This was evidently the home of the royal family. Several mountains named Trikūta situated in all the four directions of India are known from Sanskrit literature and lexicons. According to the Vishnu3 and Mārkandēya4 Purānas, Trikūta was the name of the southern ridge of the mythical Mēru mountain. It was, therefore, situated in the north. Hēmachandra5 and Mahēśvara,6 who in their lexicons give Suvēla as its synonym, evidently place it in Ceylon. An ancient commentator of Bhartrihari’s Vākyapadāiya7 states that Trikūta was the name of a mountain in the Trikalinga or Andrha country. Finally, Kālidāsa places Trikūta in Aparānta8 or North Konkan, and his view receives confirmation from Kēsava’s Kalpadrukōśa9 which gives it as a name of the Sahyādri range. In recent times, R. B. Hiralal, who identified the Traikūtakas with the Kalachuris, has expressed the view that Trikūta is identical with the Sātpurā mountain which was so called on account of its three prominent peaks, viz., the

1 The earliest known Traikūtaka king was Indradatta, who must have flourished about 415 A.C. as his son Dahrasēna’s Pardi grant is dated in K.207 (456-57A.C.) Dahrasēna is known to have performed an Aśvamēdha sacrifice. See No. 8, 1.2.
2See my article entitled ‘Historical Data in Dandin’s Daśakumāracharita’ in A.B.O.R.I., Vol. XXVI, pp.20 f. .
3VSHP., amśa II, adhyāya 2, v. 28. .
4 MP., adhyāya 55, v.6.
5 Suvēlah syāt Trimukutas=Trikūtas=Trikakuch=cha sab in Abhindhānachintāmani, Bhūmikānda, v. 96.
6Viśvaprakāśa (Chaukhamba Sanskrit Series), p. 39. According to Vālmīki’s Rāmāyana (Aranyakānda, 2,I) Rāvana’s Lankā was situated on Trikūta.
7Commenting on the Kārikā, Parvatād=āgmam labdhvā, etc., of the Vākyapadīa (Kānda II, v. 489), Punyarāja says Parvatāt Trikūt-aikadēśa-varti-Trikaling aikadēśāt.
8Raghuvamśa, Canto IV, vv. 58-59.
9Sahyāchalas=tu Mūrdhādris=Trikūtas=Trikakuch=cha sah in Kalpadrukōśa, Vol. I (Gaekwad’s Orinetal Series),p.342,s1.14. Trikakut which is given here as synonym of Trikūta is mentioned by Pānini (V,4, 147), but it cannot evidently be the Trikūta of North Konkan.


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