INSCRIPTIONS OF THE PARAMARAS OF CHANDRAVATI
No. 61 ; PLATE LXIV
VARMĀN STONE INSCRIPTION OF THE TIME OF PŪRṆAPĀLA
[Vikrama] Year 1099
...THIS inscription, which is edited here for the first time,
 was discovered by V.S. Sukthankar,
Assistant Superintendent of Archaeology, in the village of Varmān in the Reodhar tehsīl of
the Sirōhī District of south-western Rājasthān. Sukthankar found it on a pillar in a debris
lying near a marble temple dedicated to the Sun-god, which, according to his statement made in
1916-17, “is interesting alike from an archaeological and iconographical point of view, and
though in decay, is an imposing structure”. His brief notice of the inscription appears in the
Progress Report of the Western Circle of the Department, for 1916-17, page 72
The inscription consists of seven lines of writing, covering a space 21 cms. broad by 14.5
cms. high. The pillar on which it is incised was some time subsequently set up in the vestibule
of the temple referred to above. The writing is in a fair state of preservation; and with the
exception of three letters which have suffered from a scratch in 1.2, and two from an abrasion
on the stone in 1.3, it can be made out with some patience, as the engraving was done rather
The characters are Nāgarī of the eleventh century. The letter k is in ligatures; e. g., in
kṛita, 1.6, and v and dh exhibit almost similar forms, as in vudhē, 1.1. R, which is in a transitional stage, shows as many as three forms, viz., with a wedge as in Sārama and sūtradhāra, in
11. 4 and 6, respectively, with a horizontal stroke attached to a vertical, as in parihāri-, 1. 3, and
the advanced form in the same word. H has not developed the left limb; cf. mahā-, 1.2. It
is noteworthy that the consonant t in Saṁvat, 1. 1, is written as tu.
The language is Sanskrit, which is often incorrect ; and the influence of the local dialect
can be noticed from examples like yēshṭha for jyēshṭha in 1. 1, and mahārāyya for mahārāja, Punapāla for Pūrṇapāla and Dhaṁdhua for Dhandhuka, all in 1.2. The orthography does not
call for any notice except that v is used for b, as in vudha, 1. 1.
...The object of the inscription is to record the restoration of the temple of the Sun-god, by
Ṇ (N)ōchaka, the son of Sārama, at Brahmāṇa, obviously at the village Varmān, where the pillar
with the inscription was found. The date, which is recorded in numerical figures in 1. 1, is
Wednesday, the 30th, i.e., the full-moon day of Jyēshṭha of the (Vikrama) Saṁvat 1099.The year, taken as expired, corresponds to the Christian year 1043. As to be seen below, it
is also the year of the Vasantagaḍh (next) inscription ; and as known from the dates given in
both these records, the present inscription would appear as engraved about five weeks earlier
and thus it would also seem to be the earliest known record of the ruling house of Chandrāvatī and of Pūrṇapāla, who is mentioned here as a Mahārāja and the son of Dhaṁdhua, who
was no other than Dhandhuka, about whom more will be stated in the following inscription.
And though only the name of Pūrṇapāla is given in the present inscription, his title and father’s
name clearly show that he was no other than the homonymous king ruling at Chandrāvatiī.
More on all these points will be discussed while dealing with the other inscriptions of the house.
However, it may be noted here that the mention of the figure 30 while expressing the date
From a fresh set of impressions supplied by the Superintending Archaeologist, Western Circle, and also from my personal examination of the original.
For the geographical position of the village and for the description of the temple, see P.R.A.S., W.C., for 1916-17, p.71. It is about 5 kms. south-west of Reodhar, the headquarters of a tehsīl, on high way
leading to Mandār. The inscription is incised on one of the left-side pillars. Mahārāja
The details of the date will be discussed below. This is, however, one of the few records mentioning the figure 30 for Pūrṇimā. Mahārāja
These remarks are based only on the details of the dates given in the inscriptions and not on their Christian equivalents, which show that it is really later.