The Indian Analyst

North Indian Inscriptions







List of Maps and Plates


Additions and Corrections



Political History

The Early Silaharas

The Silaharas of North Konkan

The Silaharas of South Konkan

The Silaharas of Kolhapur


Religious Condition

Social Condition

Economic Condition


Architecture and Sculpture

Texts And Translations  

Inscriptions of the Silaharas of North Konkan

Inscriptions of The Silaharas of South Konkan

Inscriptions of The Silaharas of kolhapur


Additional Inscriptions of the Silaharas


A contemporary Yadava Inscription


Other South-Indian Inscriptions 

Volume 1

Volume 2

Volume 3

Vol. 4 - 8

Volume 9

Volume 10

Volume 11

Volume 12

Volume 13

Volume 14

Volume 15

Volume 16

Volume 17

Volume 18

Volume 19

Volume 20

Volume 22
Part 1

Volume 22
Part 2

Volume 23

Volume 24

Volume 26

Volume 27





Annual Reports 1935-1944

Annual Reports 1945- 1947

Corpus Inscriptionum Indicarum Volume 2, Part 2

Corpus Inscriptionum Indicarum Volume 7, Part 3

Kalachuri-Chedi Era Part 1

Kalachuri-Chedi Era Part 2

Epigraphica Indica

Epigraphia Indica Volume 3

Indica Volume 4

Epigraphia Indica Volume 6

Epigraphia Indica Volume 7

Epigraphia Indica Volume 8

Epigraphia Indica Volume 27

Epigraphia Indica Volume 29

Epigraphia Indica Volume 30

Epigraphia Indica Volume 31

Epigraphia Indica Volume 32

Paramaras Volume 7, Part 2

Śilāhāras Volume 6, Part 2

Vākāṭakas Volume 5

Early Gupta Inscriptions

Archaeological Links

Archaeological-Survey of India




..In the age of the Śilāhāras Hindu society was divided theoretically into four castes, viz. Brāhmana, Kshatriya, Vaiśya and Śūdra, but in reality these had been subdivided into innumerable sub-castes. In the caste system the Brāhmaṇa had an honoured place. He was expected to lead a pious and restrained life, and to devote himself to learning and the performance of religious rites. His six duties laid down in the Smṛitis were to study the sacred texts and to teach them to the higher castes, to perform religious rites for himself and others, and to make gifts to and to receive them from others. A Brāhmaṇa’s life from morning to night was strictly regulated. He was not to accumulate wealth, but was to content himself with provisions sufficient for from one to twelve days. Nonviolence, truthfulness, non-stealing, morality, restraint of sense, charity, self-control, compassion and forgiveness were the virtues preached in the Smṛitis for all members of the society, but expected especially of the Brāhmaṇas. The ideal set before them was, indeed, a high one. It is no wonder that those who attained it received high honour in society.

.. In selecting recipients for their grants the Śilāhāras took care to see that they were renowned for learning as well as for pious life. As Yājñavalkya says, one does not become worthy for receiving a gift by mere learning or by mere austere life. He alone is a worthy recipient for a gift who has both these and also character.[1] Several recipients of gifts are described as Mahā- Brāhmaṇas[2] or even Parama-Brāhmaṇas[3] (learned Brāhmaṇas), some of them being called Kramavids[4] (those who had mastered the krama-pāṭha of the Vēdas), Dvivēdins[5] or Chaturvēdins.[6] They are described as always engaged in the six duties laid down for Brāhmaṇas and as proficient in the performance of religious rites.[7] The names of such Brāhmaṇas are mentioned in the honorific plural in some records to show them due reverence.[8] They were invited from faroff places like Muñja-sthāna in Central India[9] and Vārāṇasī[10] in North India. Rudra-bhaṭṭōpādhyaya, the donee of the Panhāḷe plates, for instance, is described as Sōmayājī (who had performed a Sōma sacrifice) and had realised Brahman. He was proficient in two Vēdas and had sanctified himself by the darśana of and bathing in the sacred river Gaṅgā.[11] In later records such details about the donees are conspicuous by their absence.

.. It would be interesting to see how the Brāhmaṇas of the different Vēdic Śākhās were geographically distributed. Among the donees of the Śilāhāra grants, the Ṛigvēdins preponderate. Most of them hailed from Karahāta (modern Karhāḍ in the Sātārā District).[12] some had already settled down in North Koṅkaṇ.[13] Even now these Brāhmaṇas are found in large numbers in that part of the country. In some later records of the Kolhapur District,

[1] See न विद्यया केवलया तपसा वाऽपि पात्नता। यत्न वृत्तमिमे चोभे तद्धि पात्नं प्रकोर्तितम्‌॥Yājñnavalkya, I, 200.
[2] No. 9, line 38 ; No. 10, line 27; No.13, line 60.
[3] No. 23, line 67.
[4] No. 6, lines 72-73 ; No. 48, line 40.
[5] No. 23, line 69.
[6] No. 48, line 39.
[7] No. 9, lines 37-38.
[8] No. 48, lines 39-41. It is noteworthy that some other Brāhmaṇa donees mentioned in the same grant who were not so learned are referred to in the singular.
[9] No. 15, line 62, Muñjasthāna may be identical Muñjapur, south of Rādhanpur in Gujarāt.
[10] No. 23, line 67.
[11] Loc. cit.
[12] No. 14, lines 61, 104, 118 etc.
[13] No. 14, line 61.

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